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建设环境友好和社会和谐型水电
CDM清洁发展机制

建设环境友好和社会和谐型水电
发布日期:2008-3-7 14:23:28

按:中国·北京,2006年6月8日——近300位国内外能源行业企业决策层、政府官员和业界专家齐聚第二届中国替代能源与电力国际峰会2006,关注中国可再生能源开发的重新定位中面临的技术、管理和生产瓶颈,电网与电源的发展不平衡,中国的核电技术选择和核燃料循环技术发展以及中国的电力体制改革方向等热点话题,分享他们的远期规划和成功经验。峰会成为国家能源新战略下讨论中国电力市场机遇与挑战的最佳平台。

中国的替代能源包括水电、核电、以及以风电,太阳能、生物质能和地热能为代表的可再生能源,所有这些都为广大电力能源业主、投资者和设备供应商提供了巨大的商机。 中国煤炭后备储量不足,资源过快消耗必然影响国家的资源安全和长远利益,而煤的燃烧造成大气污染,使每年经济损失超过十三亿元人民币。因此加快水电、核电和天然气的发展,较大程度降低煤炭发电的比例已经势在必行。

如何发展能源替代,会议认为,必须改革现行的能源管理体制;改革现行的投资和财税体制,鼓励水电、核电和新能源的开发,加强能源领域的技术投入和技术开发;通过有效的市场运行机制,使资源得到有效配置;加强能源和电力监管,逐步建立起一个政府宏观调控、企业自主经营、行业自律管理,依法实施监管的新型的能源和电力管理体制。

同时,中国可再生能源中长期发展规划明确提出,到二0二0年中国可再生能源发电装机容量将占总装机容量的百分之三十以上,届时全国替代能源装机有望达到三点亿千瓦左右。要实现这个目标必须加快替代能源发展的步伐,包括大力发展水电;积极推进核电建设;鼓励发展风电和生物智能等可再生能源发展,不断提高替代能源在中国能源结构中的地位。

随着可再生能源法及其上网定价办法的执行,2020年130GW的可再生能源发电目标以及可再生能源技术和服务越来越为市场所接受,2006年必定是可再生能源行业发展另人兴奋的一年。

今后十五年是我国经济社会发展最重要的历史时期,也是能源和电力发展的最好时期,在明确发展方向和改革方向的基础上,只要政府、企业和社会共同努力,我们就一定能够实现能源和电力工业的健康发展。”在论坛的最后,与会专家达成了这样的共识。

为期两天的峰会所涵盖的议题及阐发的专题讨论,将为中国能源与电力行业的宏观管理部门、企事业单位和投资机构提供极富意义的决策参考。    

国家水利部水电局局长、国际小水电组织主席程回洲先生应邀在主席台就座。

在水电专题版块的论坛中,水利部水电局樊新中处长代表程回洲先生发表了《建设环境友好和社会和谐型水电》的演讲。

建设环境友好和社会和谐型水电

程回洲

2006年6月8日  北京



2006中国替代能源与电力国际峰会6月8日举行
国家水利部水电局局长、国际小水电组织主席程回洲(左二)应邀出席



水利部水电局樊新中处长代表程回洲局长发表了
《建设环境友好和社会和谐型水电》的演讲


一、引言

我国水能资源技术可开发量为6亿kW,是当前具备规模开发条件的第二大能源。水能开发是未来15年我国能源发展的战略重点。

2005年底,全国水电装机1.17亿千瓦,其中农村水电4390万千瓦,水电三分天下有其一。水电在增加能源供应,改善能源结构,保护环境,促进国民经济社会发展中发挥了巨大的作用。

开发水能在带给人类绿色电力的同时,也可能会带来生态影响和移民等环境和社会问题,特别是近几年水电开发加快,这些问题受到社会的广泛关注。

要实现水能开发与环境社会的和谐,必须认真贯彻落实科学发展观,切实树立水能开发的新理念,建立水能开发与保护的良性循环机制,建设环境友好和社会和谐型水电。

二、树立水能开发利用的新观念

1、河流健康生命

河流有其生长发育演变的过程和规律,从一定意义上讲,河流是有生命的。只有尊重河流运行的自然规律,才能维持河流健康的生命。

人与河流唇齿相依、唇亡齿寒,河流健康生命与人类发展息息相关、休戚与共。必须建立河流健康生命的观念,维护河流健康,实现人与河流和谐共处。

2、水能是河流生命的动力

水能和水电是两个完全不同的概念,两种不同的能源。但长期以来,水能管理被严重忽视。水能是河流生命的动力,没有水能,河水流动就要停止,河流生命也就停止了。

水能可以转变成机械能、热能,也可以转变成电能,但水能同样严格遵循能量守恒定律。一部分水能变成其他能以后,原始的水能配置发生了变化,河流的生态环境随之要发生变化,造成对河流及其水生物的影响。这种变化达到一定程度,河流健康生命就会被破坏,生态和环境就难以承受,直至威胁人类的生存和发展。

3、在保护生态基础上开发水电

水能可以开发成水电,但必须首先保证河流健康生命的水能和水量。要转变只强调充分利用水能,过度开发水能,忽视河流保护的观念和做法。不仅要留足生态水量和生态水能总量,而且要科学规划其运用的时空曲线。

4、有偿使用水能资源

水能资源与土地、矿产等资源一样都是我国重要的自然资源和稀缺资源,属于国家所有,是全民的资源性资产。

全民资源长期由少数人或部分人无偿占有和收益,势必造成资源分配不公和社会分配不公。同时也带来跑马圈河、抢占资源等问题。

树立有偿使用水能资源的新观念,维护社会公平。同时,促进水能资源的节约和保护。

三、加强水能资源管理的基础工作

1、水能资源管理滞后于水电开发的需要

面临水电大发展的需求,水能开发利用与保护规律的研究、河流规划等严重滞后。跑马圈河、无序开发还没有得到完全的制止。

2、加强水能资源开发和保护的理论研究

研究水能开发与河流健康生命的规律,建立良性循环机制。

研究和制定河流健康生命标准,为开发和保护提供依据。

研究制定河流生态水能和生态水量的定量标准和调度方法。

3、加强水能资源规划

加强对河流水能资源的基础调查、信息收集和专题研究。建立水能资源信息系统和水能资源定期评价制度。

以科学发展观为指导,加快河流综合规划和水能开发利用规划的编修,为科学有序开发利用水能提供条件。

四、建立环境友好和社会和谐型水电的发展机制

1、建立水能资源开发与保护的良性循环机制

尊重自然规律,正确处理水能开发和河流保护的关系,建立相应机制,促进良性循环。

2、建立水能资源开发使用权制度

建立水能资源开发使用权制度,通过招标、拍卖等市场竞争方式确定开发使用权及其价值。
各地在建立水能资源开发使用权制度方面取得了重要的经验,重庆、贵州、福建、湖北、湖南、浙江、广西等多个省(市、区)出台了行政法规和具体办法。

3、建立国家水能资源股,形成水电反哺机制

水能资源使用权的价值以水能资源股形式计入工程总资产。水能资源股收益用于河流治理、保护,反哺河流,用于补偿移民和库区,支持移民增收解困和库区发展,形成长效机制。

4、规范管理制度,建立有序开发机制

严格项目基本建设程序。完善项目审批和核准制度,完善项目规划意见书、建设方案同意书、水土保持方案审批、环境影响评价报告审批等许可制度,建立有序开发机制。

五、农村水电的成功经验

1、水电促进广大贫困山区的经济社会发展

新中国成立时,全国农村都没有电。中央采取两条腿走路的方针,在农村主要靠结合江河治理,兴修水利,开发农村水电,解决农村照明和生产用电。

到20世纪80年代,全国一半以上的农村主要靠农村水电供电,目前,1600多个县开发了农村水电。2005年农村水电新投产装机530万千瓦,累计装机4390万千瓦,年发电能力达1400亿千瓦时。农村水电不仅成为山区农村发展重要的基础设施和强大推动力,而且为国家增加能源供应,改善能源结构,保护生态环境发挥了不可或缺的作用。

50多年来,通过开发农村水电,全国累计解决了6亿多无电人口的用电问题。

“七五”—“九五”连续三个五年计划建成的653个农村水电初级电气化县,大大促进了贫困农村经济社会的全面进步。这些县实现了经济发展水平“五年翻一番、十年翻两番”,有效保护了生态。

“十五”建成的400个水电农村电气化县,平均每县增加有效资产3亿元、水电装机3万千瓦、年发电能力1亿千瓦时。400个县国内生产总值年均增长率达到15%,是全国平均水平的1.5倍,农村水电有力促进了中西部贫困山区经济社会的发展,促进了社会和谐和进步。

2、水电促进农民增收解困

在政府扶持下,广大山区农村集体经济组织或农民以资金、小额贷款、投劳、淹没赔偿等方式作为投入,开发农村水电,增加了收入,促进了脱贫致富。

江西铜鼓县红苏村全村468人,在国家的扶持下,建成农民股份合作制小水电站7座,总装机容量3085千瓦,年收入220多万元,每年人均收入4700元,全村1/3的农民成为水电工人。

四川峨眉县龙洞村建成9座农村股份制小水电站,年收入850万元,上交国家税金和村集体利润近70万元,2004年全村人均纯收入3400元,其中小水电收入1900元。

福建德化县大铭乡由乡政府用集体资产提供无偿担保帮助农户贷款兴办小水电,家家都有小水电股份。2004年全乡农民人均纯收入3486元,其中小水电收入1394元。

广东乳源瑶族自治县是一个少数民族贫困山区县,有14个乡镇,40个行政村,240个自然村,镇镇村村都办小水电。2004年全县农民人均纯收入3773元,其中来自小水电收入1555元。股份制开发利用小水电,还壮大了农村集体经济,农村饮水工程、农田水利工程、乡村道路、有线电视等投资主要由村集体支付。

3、水电促进生态和环境保护

2003年,国家启动小水电代燃料试点。经过两年多的努力,试点取得圆满成功。试点项目区有20多万农民实现了小水电代燃料,巩固退耕还林面积30万亩,保护森林面积156万亩,国家投资75元长期稳定地保护一亩山林,有效保护了生态环境,投资效果显著。小水电代燃料电价为0.17~0.25元/千瓦时,农民非常高兴。小水电代燃料解除了农民砍柴烧柴的辛苦,减轻了农民负担,解放了被砍柴烧柴长期束缚的农村劳动力,特别是妇女从烟熏火燎中解放出来更是溢于言表;增加了农民收入,带动了改厨、改厕、改电、改水、改路等农村基础设施建设,大大改善了农民的生产生活条件;促进了农民思想观念的转变,激发了农民奔小康的热情,调动了农民自己动手建设美好家园的积极性,改善了村风村容村貌。试点表明小水电代燃料不仅是解决农民烧柴,保护生态环境的重要举措,也是解决山区农业、农村、农民问题的有效途径,是建设社会主义新农村的一个有效措施,实现了国家得生态、农民得实惠、企业得效益的三赢效果。

六、加快步伐,推进环境友好和社会和谐型水电的建设

1、国家制订政策,加快实行水能资源开发权有偿使用,建立水能资源股制度,建立水电效益反哺河流和库区,促进经济社会和环境协调发展的机制,实现环境友好和社会和谐。

2、加大对农民开发水电的扶持力度。制定政策加强农村水电资源管理。以建设农村水电站为载体,把国家对农民的补助,农民获得的小额贷款,相关补偿和投工投料等都量化成农民在电站的股权资本,年复一年分红收益,真正形成农民增收的长效机制,加快贫困地区发展。

3、国家加大投入,加快实施小水电代燃料工程。保护森林,巩固退耕还林成果,改善生态,保护环境。


Building Environment-Friendly and
Society-Harmonious Hydropower

Brief Introduction of Author

Mr. Cheng Huizhou participants in the research, design, testing, construction, operation and management of Gezhouba, Three Gorgse, Xiaolangdi, Danjiang and other hydropower stations. In the past 10 years, he has been in charge of sector management of rural hydropower. Since the year of 1999, Mr. Cheng holds the post of director general in Yangtze River Water Resources Commission, Hydropower Department, Planning and Programming Department, Economic Bureau of Ministry of Water Resources, P.R.China, He is also the chairman of International Small Hydropower Organization, the expert of the national energy development leading group.

I、Foreword

The technically developable potential of water energy resources is 600 GW of China. It is the 2nd energy that has been provided with large-scale development condition. Water energy resources exploitation is the strategic emphasis of energy development in the next 15 years of China.

At the end of 2005, the whole installed capacity of hydropower arrives at 117 GW, among which the rural hydropower (≤50 MW) wins 43.9 GW,sharing 1/3 country under the sun of China. Hydropower has played and will play the huge role in increasing energy supply, improving energy structure, protecting environment and promoting the national economic and social development.

While water energy is being developed to generate the green electricity for people, such development might also bring along the ecological impact, such as the resettlement and other environmental and social issues. In recent years when water energy development is speeding up, those issues have fallen under the wide attention.

If water energy development comes the harmonious coexistence with environment and society, the scientific developing ideology should be carefully fulfilled. It must erect the new concept of water energy development as well as the benign circulation system on protection and development so that the environment-friendly and society-harmonious hydropower could be built.

II、Erecting the New Ideology of Developing Water Energy

1、Healthy Rive Life

There exists an evolutive progress and order of nature for river growth. To some degree, river possesses life. River can only remain alive when its natural moving order is respected.

People and river are as interdependent as lips and teeth. If the lip is gone, the teeth will fall. Because they share the joys and sorrows and are closely bound up, there leaves no choice but to build up the idea of healthy river life to maintain the harmonious coexistence between people and river.

2、Water Energy Is the Drive of River Life

Water energy and water power are two completely different concepts and belong to two different energies, while during a long period of time water energy management is badly neglected. Water energy is the life of river. Without water energy the move of river would stop and the life of river would cease.

Water energy can be transformed into kinetic energy、heat energy、mechanic energy and electric energy, however, water energy has to strictly follow the conservation of energy. When part of water energy is transformed into other energy, the change will take place on the original water energy allotment, and the river will follow the change and influence the river and river life. If such kinds of impacts on water life and river basin run up to a certain degree that the ecological environment hardly bears, the health of river life will be damaged and people’s existence and development endangered.

3、Developing hydropower based on ecology protection

Water energy may be developed into water power, while the water energy and water quantity for the healthy river life should be firstly guaranteed. The over-developing concept that develops the water energy completely should be reversed. It should scientifically handle the space-time curve in river planning, not neglect the river protection but leave the sufficient ecological water quantity and water energy instead.

4、Water energy resources require payment to use

Water energy resources like land, mine and other resources are important natural and scare resources, which are resources asset owned by the country and all people.

If the all-people-owned resources and the proceeds are dominated by the few people and free of charge in a long time, it will definitely result in the unfair resources and social distribution, moreover bring along the problem of river enclosure and resources looting.

It should erect the new concept of paying to use the water energy resources to maintain the social fairness and promote the water energy resources conservation and protection.

III、Reinforcing the Groundwork of Water Energy Management

1、Water energy management lags behind the demand of water power development

Up against the demand of sparing no efforts to develop hydropower, the order study and river planning on water energy development and protection have seriously lagged behind. The river enclosure and unorderly development are still not completely deterred.

2、Reinforcing the theory study on water energy resources development and protection

Research the order between water energy development and healthy river life to build up the benign circulation system.

Research and establish the standard on healthy river life to provide the development and protection with grounds.

Research and establish the quantitative standard and dispatching method of the ecological water energy and water quantity

3、Reinforcing the planning of water energy resources

Reinforce the basic survey, information collection and dissertation study on water energy resources; Establish the water energy resources information system and periodic appraisal system.

Under the direction of scientific development ideology, the comprehensive planning of the river and development planning of water energy should speed up the workout as well as rectification so that the foundation for scientific and orderly development of water energy could be provided with.

IV、Building the Mechanism of Developing the Environment-friendly and Society-harmonious Hydropower

1、Building the benign circulation system of development and protection

Keep to the order of nature, correctly address the relationship between water energy development and river protection, and establish the according systems to promote the benign circulation.

2、Building the access system of developing water energy resources

Build the access system of developing water energy resources. Confirm the access worth based on inviting the public bidding, auction and other market competitive methods.

The important experiences in establishing the access system of developing water energy resources have been obtained by many places. Chongqing、Guizhou、Fujian、Hubei、Hunan、Zhejiang、Guangxi and many other provinces(metropolis、autonomous region)have issued the administration regulation and specification.

3、Building the shares in state-owned water energy resources and forming the contrary feeding system of water power

The access worth of water energy resources is reckoned in the whole assets of the project in the form of share stock in water energy resources while the proceeds of the share stock are used for river fathering and protection to compensate the river for resettlement and reservoir areas and to establish the long-term compensation system.

4、Aligning management system and establishing the orderly development mechanism

Strictly keep to the infrastructure program. Perfect the project approval and ratification system and the admission system on issuing the position paper of project planning, construction scheme, water and soil conservation precept, EIA approval and build up the orderly development mechanism.

V、Successful Practice of Rural Hydropower

1、Rural hydropower promotes the economic and social development of the poor mountain areas in an all-round way

1、When new China was founded, all rural areas have no access to electricity. The central government adopted the policy of “walking on two legs” to build up water project and develop rural hydro. The main focus of the hydropower development at that time is to meet the demand of rural lighting and production electricity use. In the 1980s, more than half rural areas of China depend on rural hydropower to provide with the electricity. Up to now, there are over 1600 counties that have developed rural hydropower. The capacity of rural hydropower newly put into operation in the year of 2005 wins 5300 MW, and the whole installed capacity of rural hydropower reaches 43.9 GW with annual energy of 140 billion kWh. Rural hydropower has not only become the important infrastructure and the strong drive to promote the development of rural areas, but also increased the energy supply, improved the energy structure, protected the ecological environment and played an indispensable role.

There are over 600 million accumulative total people being electrified after developing rural hydropower in China in past 50 years.

From the “7th Five-Year Plan” to the “9th Five-Year Plan”, 653 rural preliminary electrification counties are completed during three consecutive Five-Year plan, which energetically promotes the economic development and social progress of poor rural areas in all-round way. The economic indices of those 653 counties double in 5 years or quadruple in 10 years while ecological environment are effectively under the protection.

400 rural hydropower electrification counties built up in the “10th Five-Year Plan” increase the available capital over RMB 300 million, 30 MW capacity of hydropower and annual energy of 100 million kWh for each county on average. The growth rate of GDP of those 400 hydropower electrification counties arrives at 15% averagely,1.5 times the national average level. Rural hydropower vigorously boosts the economic development and social harmonious progress in the middle and west part of China.

2、Small hydropower enriches the farmer and alleviates the poverty

Supported by the government,the rural collective economic organization and farmers use the fund、small loan、labor、submersion compensation to buy a share in hydropower development to increase income and alleviate poverty.

There are 468 people in Hongsu Village of Tonggu county, Jiangxi province. With the help of the country, 7 farmer-share-holding small hydropower stations have been built up. The total installed capacity is 3085 kW. The annual revenue reaches over RMB 2 million and annual income of RMB 4700 per capita. 1/3 farmers of that village become the hydropower workers.

Dragon Tunnel Village of Emei county, Sichuan province completed 9 rural share-holding small hydro stations, earning annual revenue of RMB 8.5 million, paying the tax nearly 700 thousand Yuan and handing in the village collective organization profits also about 700 thousand Yuan. In 2004, the net income of the whole village on average is RMB 3400,among which RM B 1900 comes from small hydro.

Daming township administration of Dehua county, Fujian province holds the collective capital on pledge free of charge to help farmers lend the loan to develop small hydro. In Daming township, every family has the share stock in small hydro. In the year of 2004, the average net income of each farmer reaches RMB 3486,with small hydro revenue of RMB 1394.

Ruyan Yao Minority county of Guangdong province is a poor mountain county, governing 14 townships,40 administration villages,240 nature villages,and all the towns and villages develop small hydro. In 2004, the net income of each farmer reaches RMB 3773 per capita,while RMB 1555 from small hydro revenue. The share-holding system to develop small hydropower has expanded the rural collective economy, at present the village collective organization can afford the payment of rural water drinking project, irrigation project, rural backroad and CATV etc.

3、Hydropower promotes the ecological environment protection

The country in 2003 requests to start the pilot project of substituting small hydro for fuel. After two-year efforts, the pilot project makes the round success. There are 200 thousand farmers using small hydro to cook and heat. The woodland transformed from farmland amounts to 20 thousand hectares. 104 thousand hectares of forest is protected effectively, which equals every 75 Yuan is put into the investment in this project, each 1/15 hectare of forest will be effectively conserved. The investment return is notable and stable. The power price charged by small hydro station substituting for fuel is RMB 0.17~0.25 Yuan/kWh only and farmers are very happy to such a low electricity price. The project releases farmers of hardship in cutting trees and burning bavins, emancipates the restricted rural labor, increases farmers income, brings along the rural infrastructure construction as well as kitchen, toilet, electricity, water, backroad alteration, improves farmers production and living condition, promotes farmers’ idea transformation, stimulates farmers passion to strive for a relatively comfortable life,mobilizes farmers to build up their own good homestead, improve the village feature, particularly relieves rural women of sootiness and fire burn. The pilot demonstrates the project of substituting small hydro for fuel is not only the important measure to prevent farmers burning bavins and protect the ecological environment, but also the effective way to address the issues regarding agriculture、rural areas and farmers, and to build up the new socialist countryside. The project achieves the triple wins that the country protects the ecological effects, farmers benefit and enterprises profit.

VI、Speeding the Advancement to Build the Environment-Friendly and Society-Harmonious Hydropower

1、The country works out the policy to speed up the pay use of the development entitlement of water energy resources, establishes the state-owned shares in water energy resources and uses the water power proceeds to compensate the river and reservoir areas, and sets up the system to promote the harmonious development between society and environment.

2、Devote more support to hydropower developed by farmers. Set down policy to reinforce the rural hydropower resources management. Take the rural hydropower station as the carriers and transform the national subsidy on farmers, farmers’ small loan, compensation concerned and labor and materials into the equity capital of small hydro station owned by farmers, so that farmers can share the bonuses under a long-term system to enrich farmers and poor areas. 

3、The country puts more investment to accelerate the project of substituting small hydro for fuel and to protect the forest, consolidate the transformation of farmland into woodland, and improve the ecological environment.


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